At present, most of the researches on geometric change detection of vector data, they store the change detection results in the database, so they pay more attention to the accuracy of results, but not to the speed of processing. Nowadays, many applications require real-time change detection on vector data and rapid presentation of the result. Although the existing algorithms use spatial index technology to improve the processing speed, the processing time is still beyond the range that people can bear. In order to reduce processing time, this paper takes the vector surface feature set as the research object, trying to reduce the redundancy of the candidate set that seriously affects the efficiency of change detection. Based on the regular use of spatial index created with geometric Minimum Bounding Rectangle, this paper uses geometric shrinkage technique and precise query technique to reduce the size of the candidate set for detection, so as to achieve the goal of speeding up. Finally, using five years of farmland data and resident data from Ezhou City, Hubei Province, China, a change detection experiment was conducted. The experiment proved that the geometric shrinkage and precise query techniques can effectively improve the processing speed.