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Drivers of variations in the vertical profile of ozone over Summit Station, Greenland: An analysis of ozonesonde data

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This paper is available in a repository.

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Understanding the drivers of atmospheric ozone variations in the Arctic is difficult because there are few long-term records of vertical ozone profiles in this region. We present 12 years of ozone profiles over Summit Station, Greenland (72.6 N, 38.4 W; 3200 meters) that were measured from 2005 to 2016. These profiles are subjected to data screening and are extended to 60 km using a robust extrapolation method. The total column ozone and the partial column ozone in four atmospheric layers (troposphere to upper stratosphere) are analyzed. The monthly mean total column ozone reaches a maximum of about 400 DU in April, then decreases to minimum values between 275 and 300 DU in the late summer and early fall. The partial column ozone values peak at different times between late winter and early summer. There is a positive trend in the total column that is likely due to increases in springtime ozone, however, these trends are not robust given the short period of record. A stepwise multiple regression analysis is performed to determine the primary drivers of ozone variations over Summit Station. This analysis shows that the variations in total column ozone are due primarily to changes in the tropopause pressure, the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO), and the volume of polar stratospheric clouds. The eddy heat flux is also important for variations in the partial column ozone in the different altitude regions. The importance of the QBO appears to be a unique characteristic for ozone variations over the Greenland Ice Sheet (when compared to other nearby Arctic Stations) and may be related to the fact that Greenland is particularly sensitive to the phase of the QBO.

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