Shaanxi Province, located in Northwest China and spanning multiple hydroclimatic and geological zones, has many areas largely suffering from rainfall-induced landslide and debris flow. The objectives of this study are to reveal the spatiotemporal characteristics of the two hazards and identify their major controlling factors in this region based on a region-wide, comprehensive ground survey-based hazard inventory dataset from 2009–2012. We investigated the spatiotemporal characteristics of the two hazards and quantified the relationships between the occurrence rates of the two hazards and their influencing factors, including antecedent rainfall amount, rainfall duration, rainfall intensity, terrain slope, land cover type and soil type. The results show that landslide has a higher occurrence rate and more extensive distribution than debris flow in this region, while the two hazards are both concentrated in the south with ample rainfall and steep terrains. Both of the hazards show clear seasonalities: July–September for landslide and July for debris flow. Rainfall characteristics (amount, duration and intensity) and slope are the dominant factors controlling slope stability across this region. Debris flow is more sensitive to these rainfall metrics on the high-value ranges than landslide in this region. Land cover is another influencing factor but soil type does not appear to impose consistent impacts on the occurrence of the two hazards. This study not only provides an important inventory data for studying the landslide and debris flow hazards but also add valuable information for modeling and predicting the two hazards to enhance resilience to these hazards in this region.