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High efficiency of livestock ammonia emission controls on alleviating particulate nitrate during a severe winter haze episode in northern China

This paper is available in a repository.
This paper is available in a repository.

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Although nitrogen oxide (NOx) emission controls have been implemented for several years in northern China, recent observations show particulate nitrate (NO 3 − ) is becoming increasingly important during haze episodes. In this study, we find that particulate NO 3 − formation would easily become NH 3 -limited under severe haze conditions, enhancing its sensitivity to NH 3 emission controls. Furthermore, improved manure management of livestock husbandry could reduce 40 % of NH 3 emissions (currently 100 kiloton per a month) in winter of northern China. Under this emission reductions scenario, simulations from the thermodynamic equilibrium model (ISORROPIA-II) and the Weather Research and Forecast model coupled chemistry (WRF-Chem) all show that particulate NO 3 − could be reduced by approximately 40 % during a typical severe haze episode (averagely from 40.8 to 25.7 μg/m 3 ). Our results indicate that reducing livestock NH 3 emissions would be highly effective to reduce particulate NO 3 − during severe winter haze events.

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